Scientists Discover Addition of New Brain Cells in Highest Brain Area

Scientists Discover

Scientists Discover

Finding reverses long-held beliefs and has implications for designing therapies

PRINCETON, N.J. — In a finding that eventually could lead to new methods for treating brain diseases and injuries, Princeton scientists have shown that new neurons are continually added to the cerebral cortex of adult monkeys. The discovery reverses a dogma nearly a century old and suggests entirely new ways of explaining how the mind accomplishes its basic functions, from problem solving to learning and memory.

Elizabeth Gould and Charles Gross report in the Oct. 15 issue of Science that the formation of new neurons or nerve cells — neurogenesis — takes place in several regions of the cerebral cortex that are crucial for cognitive and perceptual functions. The cerebral cortex is the most complex region of the brain and is responsible for highest-level decision making and for recognizing and learning about the world. The results strongly imply that the same process occurs in humans, because monkeys and humans have fundamentally similar brain structures.

“This is an absolutely novel result,” says William T. Greenough, director of the neuroscience program at the University of Illinois’ Beckman Institute. “These data scream for a reanalysis of human brain development.”

The traditional view among neuroscientists has been that the primate brain is different from other organs in that it is not capable of repairing itself or growing new cells, that no new neurons are added to the brain in maturity. This dogma has gradually eroded in the last decade as evidence accumulated for neurogenesis in several evolutionarily older parts of the brain such as the olfactory system and the hippocampus, which is believed to play role in memory formation. In the last year, Gould and her colleagues helped this erosion by proving neurogenesis in the hippocampus of several types of monkeys.

The new finding in the cerebral cortex is much more dramatic, the Princeton team believes, because the cortex is the largest and most advanced part of the brain. After the discoveries in the hippocampus, says Gould, most scientists remained convinced that adult neurogenesis was an anomaly and could not be found in the newer, higher parts of the brain. They believed, for example, that the brain relies on a stable structure for storing memories.

“People thought: If the cerebral cortex is important in memory, how could it change?” says Gross. “In fact the opposite view is at least as plausible: if memories are formed from experiences, these experience must produce changes in the brain.”

Although practical applications of the discovery could be years, even decades away, the results suggest that scientists may one day exploit natural repair mechanisms to treat brain injuries or diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. The Princeton scientists found that the new neurons were formed in the lining of the cerebral ventricles, large fluid-filled structures deep in the center of the brain, and then migrated considerable distances to various parts of the cerebral cortex. This type of migration, which had never been seen before, may prove useful in guiding therapeutic cells to desired sites in the brain that have lost their functioning neurons through disease or injury.

“It shows there are natural mechanisms in the brain that, someday, might be harnessed for therapeutic purposes to replenish damaged areas of the brain,” says Gould. For now, that possibility remains speculative. Such work would fall to other scientists who have expertise in human diseases.

Greenough, of the Beckman Institute, says the study also has major implications for theories about how the brain develops. In particular, it casts doubt on the notion that the all-important time for brain development is from zero to three years of age, and raises the likelihood that experiences through adolescence and adulthood can affect the physical structure of the brain. “If what they have shown holds true for all primates, including humans, it means we really need to rewrite the book on brain development and the way that experience can affect the brain,” says Greenough.

The Gould and Gross discovery also may require neuroscientists to draw a less bold distinction between the brains of humans and other animals, says Fernando Nottebohm of Rockefeller University. Scientists have observed neurogenesis in birds and rats for many years, but assumed that as evolution advanced and mental capacities increased, the brain supported less and less neurogenesis. “What you can say now is that the primate brain is more like that of songbirds,” says Nottebohm, who believes that theories of the brain have been too “human-centric.”

“It is a very interesting paper,” Nottebohm says. “And I think it will do the field a great deal of good.”

For their experiments, Gould and Gross took advantage of the unique properties of a chemical known as BrdU. When cells are exposed to BrdU during cell division, the chemical becomes incorporated into the DNA of newly formed cells. The researchers injected BrdU into rhesus monkeys, whose brain structure is fundamentally similar to that of humans. Then, at intervals ranging from two hours to seven weeks, they looked for evidence of the chemical in neurons in the cerebral cortex. In all cases, there were neurons with BrdU in their DNA, which showed that those cells had to have been formed after the BrdU injection.

The earliest cells, found in the walls of the ventricles and then migrating toward the cortex, were not yet mature. By the time they reached the neocortex — a matter of days — they had developed into mature neurons. In a final test, the researchers showed that the cells extended axons, the long, thin extensions of neurons that send messages to other neurons. They injected a chemical tracer into the brains of several of the animals a few weeks after the BrdU injections. The tracer has the property of traveling from the end of an axon back to the body of the neuron. An examination of the animals’ brains showed neurons that had both labels, the BrdU and the tracer, suggesting that the new cells had formed working axons and were participating in the functional circuitry of the brain.

Within the cerebral cortex, the researchers found neurogenesis in three areas: 1) the prefrontal region, which controls executive decision making and short-term memory; 2) the inferior temporal region, which plays a crucial role in the visual recognition of objects and faces, and 3) the posterior parietal region, which is important for the representation of objects in space.

Interestingly, there was no sign of neurogenesis in a fourth area, the striate cortex, which handles the initial, and more rudimentary, steps of visual processing. That contrast suggests that neurogenesis may play a role in performing higher brain functions. Virtually all theories of learning and memory hold that memories are formed by modifications at the synapse, which is the transmission junction between neurons. On the basis of the new findings, it is now conceivable that the introduction of new neurons into the circuitry of the brain may play a role in memory.

Gould and Gross emphasize that any ideas about the functions of the new neurons are highly speculative. But the fact that there is neurogenesis in the cognitive and executive portions of the brain opens vast new areas that can be explored.

Gould and Gross, both faculty members in the Department of Psychology, collaborated with graduate student Alison Reeves and research staff member Michael Graziano. The work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health and the James S. McDonnell Foundation.

Last week, scientists at Princeton University made an announcement that goes counter to long-held wisdom about the brain. They discovered that new neurons are continually being added to the brains of adult monkeys, even to parts of the brain responsible for very high-level functioning.

Once, it was believed that no new brain cells were created after adulthood. Later, it was found that some parts of the brain such as the hippocampus, could regrow cells. The work, reported in the October 15th issue of Science, means that neurogenisis may be much more common than previously thought. We’ll talk about what the research might mean for learning, memory, and the treatment of neurological diseases.

Other researchers have been trying to regrow brain cells in another way – by using generic “neural stem cells” that the body can develop into many different types of neural tissue We’ll find out about efforts to clone theses neural stem cells, and how cells like these might be used in disease treatment.

We’ll also find out about a discovery announced this week by researchers at Amgen (Full disclosure: Amgen is one of Science Friday’s funders on NPR.) The researchers, writing in this week’s edition of the journal Science, report that they have located an enzyme that they believe is involved in the formation of “plaque” in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. While the existence of the enzyme has been assumed for a long time, it had never been actually isolated before. Might the discovery be of use someday for treating Alzheimer’s? We’ll find out.

New information about the venue

New information about the venue

New information about the venue

The meeting will take place at CaixaForum, the new social and cultural center of Fundació “la Caixa” in Barcelona. The building is an early 20th-century factory that has been completely rebuilt and fully appointed with state-of-the-art technical equipment. Originally designed by the Catalan architect Josep Puig i Cadafalch in 1911, it is one of the jewels of modernista industrial architecture in Spain and has been listed as a Historical Monument of National Interest

CaixaForum is located close to the fountains and gardens of mount Montjuïc, one of Barcelona’s largest parks, and one of its most charming and interesting in terms of landscape gardening. CaixaForum offers a place where the visual arts, music, literature and thought alternate and intermingle, and where for a few days sciences, arts and letters will live together with even greater intensity.

back to the top How to get to CaixaForum CaixaForum (the venue) is located in the Marqués de Comillas avenue. Bus Lines 15 and 30 have stops in front of CaixaForum, however, if your hotel is not close to this lines, the best way is to go by public transport to Plaça Espanya and then just walk about 500-600 meters to CaixaForum following this map. Abstracts Submission

Abstracts submission deadline All abstracts should be submitted before May 1st, 2003. Abstracts submitted after this date will not be accepted. Guidelines for abstracts submission The whole abstract (including Title, Authors and Affiliation) must not exceed 1700 characters (including spaces). Do not introduce blank lines. Do not use any Greek symbols or diacritical marks (used to indicate different sounds of a letter) as they will not be reproduced. For the same reason do not include any table or graph. Please, follow precisely the format of the attached hypothetical abstract.

Title: has to be written in lowercase; avoid long expressions.

Authors: start with the last (family) name then type the first (and middle) name(s) initials. No space between the initials, no comma after family name, no full stop after initials. If the authors have two (or more) different affiliations insert numbers indicating the affiliations in brace (after the author’s initials). Separate authors’ names with commas. Affiliation: start each affiliation with a number in brace, then give the name of the department, institution, town and country. Do not provide postal address. Separate affiliations with semicolon. Separate institution, town and country with commas.

Body text: do not use paragraphs.

ABSTRACT EXAMPLE

Neonatal hippocampal damage disrupts prefrontal cortical function in the rat
Brown SB (1), Wilson J (1), Piccolo MNS (2) (1) Dept. Physiological Science, Cardiff University, UK; (2) Faculty of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Exitotoxic lesions that involve regions of the hippocampus directly projecting to the prefrontal cortex, lead in early adulthood

Dear EBBS members, colleagues and friends, The programme for the 35th annual meeting of the EBBS is now ready. The programme committee has selected six plenary lecturers and 14 symposia from among the many excellent proposals submitted by EBBS members and colleagues. The committee aimed to create a programme of high scientific quality, high level of interest for our community and a broad coverage of timely topics in the field of brain and behaviour. The rest of the programme will be madeup of voluntary contributions in the form of posters. The Local organising committee will assure that adequate time will be allocated for poster viewing and discussion. So we urge you to register as soon as possible and help us complete the programme by sending your contribution. The meeting will take place in less than one year at the magnificent CaixaForum in Barcelona, September 17-20, 2003. The EBBS committee and the Local Organising committee are looking forward to welcoming you to what promises to be an outstanding event.

Susan J. Sara, President of the EBBS

We would like to welcome all members and friends of EBBS to attend the next Annual General Meeting in 2003 in the wonderful European and cosmopolitan city of Barcelona. The programme will be as strong on science as ever and in addition have a distinctive local colour in being held at the new social and cultural center of Fundació “la Caixa” in Barcelona, with a modern art museum accessible to meeting participants. Wolfram Schultz, Former President of the EBBS

The Auditory System – Overview

The Auditory System

The Auditory System

Information Processing in the Nervous System

Our fundamental interest is to understand the mechanisms used by the nervous system to process and analyze information about the sensory environment. Information processing in the nervous system operates on a number of fundamental levels: the dynamic electrical signalling of individual neurons (regulated by ion channels and their distribution within the cell membrane), the communcation between neurons that takes place largely at synapses, and the collective behavior of sets of neurons within neural circuits that are excited (or inhibited) according to external stimuli and internal conditions. Neural information processing is neither static nor uniform; rather at all levels, from molecules to networks, it depends on preceeding states, including developmental interactions with the environment, lifelong learning and training experience, and the immediate cellular and behavioral context. The sensory systems (hearing, vision, touch, smell, taste, and balance) have proven to be excellent experimental systems to study neural information processing. Sensory information processing is often easily traced from one level to the next, the external stimulus can be well controlled, and the constraints of the system and requirements for specific types of processing are often readily discernable. Previous and ongoing work in the laboratory has focussed on electrical signalling and ion channels in individual neurons, and synaptic communication between cells. A new direction that we are taking is to examine neural circuit organization and synaptic plasticity in cortex.

Why the auditory system?
To study information processing in groups of neurons, it is helpful to use a system with well defined inputs, and well defined anatomy. There are several systems that meet these criteria, including various invertebrate preparations. However in vertebrates the requirement for well defined inputs is met best at the peripheral levels of sensory systems.

The auditory system has two principal advantages over the other sensory systems for the study of information processing mechanisms:

The representation of sound in the auditory nerve has been well studied over the past 40 years, and responses to simple sounds, such as tones, noises and clicks, as well as sounds as complex as portions of speech, have been sufficiently well characterized that sophisiticated computational models exist that capture many features of the nerve’s responses. The auditory nerve represents these sounds in a fairly consistent way from one fiber to the next. Each auditory nerve fiber receives input from a single cochlear inner hair cell, which imparts sensitivity to a limited range of frequencies, similar to a bandpass filter. Individual fibers representing one frequency vary in their sound level threshold (the intensity of sound at which they change their firing rate), and this is (inversely) correlated with their spontaneous activity in silence. Thus, the input to the brain, although not completely homogeneous, is well characterized and can be reasonably represented computationally.
The first stage of auditory information processing occurs in the cochlear nucleus, where the relatively uniform discharge of auditory nerve fibers is transformed into a set of distinct ascending parallel pathways that emphasize different features of the sensory environment. These transformations can be understood in terms of the types of analysis that the auditory system must perform to accomplish its numerous perceptual tasks. This divergence of processing underlying these transformations is supported by defined subsets of cochlear nucleus neurons that have distinct patterns of afferent synaptic connection, dendritic architecture, neurotransmitter receptor expression, and ion channel expression. The ability to examine the mechanisms used by different cell types to process an essentially common input allows a comparative approach, and has helped us to understand the importance of different neuronal mechanisms in accomplishing different information processing tasks. The apparent direct correspondence between ion channel expression and the types of integration carried out by particular auditory neurons has particularly helped us understand the mechanisms of information processing in these cells.

The major research efforts of the laboratory are focussed on the roles of ion channels, their kinetics, and cellular distribution, in shaping neural integration in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus.
We have an additional interest in the roles of dendrites in the processing and integration of synaptic inputs.
We are also studying short term and long term modulation ion channel function in cochlear nucleus neurons.
We are also studying the effects of deafness on the cellular mechanisms of information processing in the cochlear nucleus. In these experiments, we characterize the processing capabilities of the residual auditory system, and associated changes in ion channel expression, with the long term goal of proposing stimulation strategies to accommodate or overcome changes in these capabilities due to changes in available cellular mechanisms.
A future direction is to examine long-term synaptic plasticity and circuit organization in auditory cortex.
Experiments are complemented with biophysically realistic compartmental models of channels and cells, to relate cellular mechanisms to the formation of neural information codes.

Modeling

Modeling

Modeling

Experiments are complemented with computational models. It is very difficult to accurately predict the outcomes of experimental manipulations when working on a complex non-linear dynamic system like a spiking neuron with voltage-dependent conductances. Our goal is not to generate models for their own sake, although high quality computational representations of real neurons may be useful in several ways, but to use the models to provide a formal and quantitative test situation to evaluate hypotheses and determine where our understanding is weak. The comparison of these models to equivalent experiments allows us to make further predictions and develop new hypotheses; the failures of the models drive us to seek new information from experiments and lead to refinements of the models. The strength of this approach is that we can combine experimental and theoretical work in a single laboratory, which both shortens development time and allows the incorporation of many specific experimental measurements that may not necessarily be available from the literature. This approach results in fairly highly constrained models, closely tied to biophysics, and with known strengths and weaknesses with respect to the data set they represent.
Models are generated in NEURON, MATLAB, or C.

Information Processing in the Nervous System

Our fundamental interest is to understand the mechanisms used by the nervous system to process and analyze information about the sensory environment. Information processing in the nervous system operates on a number of fundamental levels: the dynamic electrical signalling of individual neurons (regulated by ion channels and their distribution within the cell membrane), the communcation between neurons that takes place largely at synapses, and the collective behavior of sets of neurons within neural circuits that are excited (or inhibited) according to external stimuli and internal conditions. Neural information processing is neither static nor uniform; rather at all levels, from molecules to networks, it depends on preceeding states, including developmental interactions with the environment, lifelong learning and training experience, and the immediate cellular and behavioral context. The sensory systems (hearing, vision, touch, smell, taste, and balance) have proven to be excellent experimental systems to study neural information processing. Sensory information processing is often easily traced from one level to the next, the external stimulus can be well controlled, and the constraints of the system and requirements for specific types of processing are often readily discernable. Previous and ongoing work in the laboratory has focussed on electrical signalling and ion channels in individual neurons, and synaptic communication between cells. A new direction that we are taking is to examine neural circuit organization and synaptic plasticity in cortex.
What do we do?
Our laboratory is interested in the mechanisms that the nervous system uses to process sensory information. For example, what makes auditory neurons uniquely suited to the tasks that they must accomplish? What kinds of synaptic and ionic mechanisms normally operate, and what kinds of plasticity are present in the system?

Other studies
We recently have begun studying the effects of different forms of deafness on central auditory processing mechanisms. Cells in the nervous system sense their inputs and their own activity, and can respond by changing the proteins that they make and use. This can affect information processing.

To the immediate left is a schematic rendering of part of the circuit of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, looking en face at an isofrequency sheet (top), and looking down from the top of the nucleus at 3 such sheets (bottom). Pyramidal cells are blue, carwheel cells red, stellate cells grey, vertical cells green, and granule cells brown.
The far left image is a dorsal cochlear nucleus pyramidal cell in a brain slice, filled with AlexaFluor 488, and digitally reconstructed. Electrical activity of the cell, and currents through channels are also shown.

Home Organizer

Home Organizer® provides a painless method for organizing the home or home office. It is a xvideos software application that turns a PC into a virtual filing cabinet with its familiar looking and easy-to-use drawer and folder interface. Home Organizer is used for three primary reasons: immediate retrieval of documents, reduction of xnxx clutter and disaster recovery.

It can be used for filing auto records, monthly bills, tax records, wills, warranties, investments, property records, photographs, recipes, computer files, homework and other subjects videos porno of interest. You can quickly file important records and then instantly retrieve them with a simple click of your mouse.

Files and images redtube are stored on the hard drive of your computer, so you always have immediate access to your data.

No additional computer hardware is required. Information can be typed directly on electronic forms pornhub included with the software. Home Organizer’s versatility lets you import computer files or upload images from a digital camera, disk or scanner.

Home Organizer is a key element in assisting with insurance claims. It can be used to build a digital youporn inventory of possessions.

Look familiar? It doesn’t have to! All too often the ability to locate documents ( hard copy and/or elec- tronic ) quickly and easily can be a very difficult task. Not any more. At Document redtube Imaging we’re excited to
offer digital solutions that can significantly impact your business ensuring you save money, labor costs, and storage, while increasing efficiency and productivity.

Document Imaging youporn specializes in solutions and services related to the conversion of computer based, and hard-copy documents to electronic images.

Document Imaging works within several industry markets to provide solutions that make an impact to xvideos their business. Within these industries, we have had major success in assisting the customer reach their goals.

These are just a few of the Case Studies that we have performed. Additional studies will be posted on a frequent basis. To learn more about a specific study, simple select from the list below… Automobile Dealerships

Emergency videos porno Vehicles Engineering & Manufacturing Insurance Oil & Gas Industry Software Distributor Telecommunications Document Imaging provides strategic assistance to its partners for the purpose of supporting the “paperless” strategy.

Primary Model
There are specific benefits to be gained by utilizing the strengths and experiences of Document Imaging to achieve your vision. The partnership will be designed to…

Maximize the number of customers utilizing the services Maximize profits Minimize costs / expenses to you, or our partner

Minimize the selling efforts on the part of your sales organization

Document Imaging is committed to building a very flexible partnership model. Our model goes beyond the delivery of just a service. With each customer we focus heavily on both his or her business, and business needs. We include…

Adapting to production time- lines and critical windows Annual Customer Satisfaction Surveys Consulting assistance Direct customer billing if desired

Marketing support Telephone sales and specialized assistance to your sales organization and much more Voice of the Customer.

Listen to what a few of our satisfied customers have to say about our solutions and services… Jim Gisseler Illinois Tool Works “The CD-ROM provided to me by Document Imaging allows me to access 125 different payroll companies’ payroll information in one place!.”

American Medical Response “I love receiving our payroll reports on CD. The whole year fits on one CD. It has saved us both time and space.”

Athena Chapman Payroll Manager

“I love Document Imaging and I love the CD-ROM. It’s one-stop shopping for me and I love one-stop shopping! We have 6 company numbers with over 2500 employees, so I like the fact that I can take one CD-ROM for the entire year and find whomever I wish for whatever reason.”

Oppenheimer Funds

“At Oppenheimer Funds, we have found the monthly CD-ROM’s to be invaluable in researching employee issues. All of the payroll information is available with a click of the mouse! Also, processing requests for copies of W2 forms is now a quick and easy task. We have significantly reduced staff time spent in both of these areas.”

Products & Services.

Document Imaging provides a wide array of products, services, and solutions that are designed to help you meet even the most demanding of requirements.

Please note that this list is only a small presentation of what we have to offer you. We encourage you to learn more about our exciting solutions by simply selecting from the list below…

Document Imaging specializes in solutions and services related to the conversion of computer-based and hard-copy paper documents to electronic images. Once converted, these documents can be easily viewed, indexed, retrieved, printed, and transported via CD-ROM to other PC-based applications, an electronic document management system and/or the Internet. Thousands of documents can be accessed in seconds, offering major savings in labor and storage costs – benefiting overall office productivity. Document Imaging currently creates CD-ROMs for approximately 7,500 companies. This number equates to over 2.5 gigabytes of data or 250,000 pages of ASCII text print files received daily. This is roughly six million new pages monthly or seventy-two million pages annually.

Company Background
Document Imaging is a Denver-based corporation, which has been delivering imaging and data conversion solutions and services across the United States since 1993. Document Imaging has grown its business of service, products, and support to more than 7,500 companies in the United States. Its portfolio of services has grown to include Internet storage and retrieval of key applications such as payroll, invoices and accounting documents. Today, Document Imaging also markets electronic document repository software that enables in-house document management and workflow applications.

Senior Management
.
Document Imaging operates with the input and decision power made by its senior management team. This team approach allows for diverse input when selecting new applications, products, services, and different & innovative ways to run the business.

Summary
Document Imaging offers a low risk approach to effectively converting, retrieving, printing, and storing information. Benefits of sourcing these services from Document Imaging include…

IMAGE-X

There is a clear migration path to meet your needs every step of the way with IMAGE-X document management products and services, from the needs of a small businessperson or professional to the needs of a medical center or manufacturing concern straddling the continent.

IMAGE-X’s Document Imaging System is a highly developed industrial strength software that allows an organization the flexibility to grow from a stand alone document-imaging scheme to a network system operating in a LAN and WAN environment.

All of our products are built on the same scalable architecture, so they can easily fit your needs no matter the size of your company.

The system is based on an open architecture and is independent of operating systems, hardware platforms, and application databases.
The imaging system interfaces with a number of scanners and optical storage devices including optical drives, optical jukeboxes and CD-ROM drives. Every component on the imaging network is considered an additional node. This allows the imaging system to grow with the
EDAR allows interactive communication between the sender and the recipient through an electronic window. Documents can be submitted, and approved by the recipient through the electronic window. Once the clerk of the recipient has approved the filing, it is given an electronic stamp of approval and an email is sent to the filer confirming approval of the document.

Adobe Acrobat

Recording deeds is a delicate process. An error made when recording a deed could have serious adverse effects on an owner’s future right to use or sell the property.

For this reason, recorders have developed strict procedures for handling each transaction carefully and accurately. These procedures are so ingrained that new methods are rarely adopted, even while new technologies allow the sender to deliver documents and data in a  multitude of different formats (Word, TIFF, Adobe Acrobat, etc.), and through an increasing variety of media. No longer just hand-delivered as paper copies, documents come on floppy disks, zip disks, and jaz disks, and through faxes, emailed attachments, FTP, and other means, making it difficult for the recorder to keep organized records.

eRecording is a comprehensive online document and data exchange system that allows title companies to automate their recording processes with increased accuracy and efficiency. eRecording provides easy preparation of documents and allows for the use of both hard copies and electronic documents in a variety of file formats, including Word, WordPerfect, Acrobat, and TIFF.

eRecording automatically converts each different document type to one common, unalterable format so it can be legally authenticated and distributed electronically.

The system’s open architecture allows it to be modified to accommodate any state’s existing workflow. Transitioning to eRecording is easy, too. eRecording’s open architecture makes it easy to create an electronic process that mimics a company’s existing paper process, eliminating development costs and the need to create new administrative

Paperless transfer of documents between parties and county recorders Accurate and efficient recording
Customizable electronic processing that corresponds to existing paper process Incorporation of digital signatures from all parties and notary public 128-bit security encryption Comprehensive document storage and retrieval

Knowledge and document management are more than just buzzwords to us. Image-X has fourteen porno years of experience in architecting and implementing creative, cutting-edge solutions for clients in business, education, government, healthcare, and manufacturing. We know that the ability to manage information efficiently is critical to your organization’s success. So we implement our solutions only after fully evaluating your organization’s workflow and habits to ensure that you get the solution that fits your needs. It’s what we do: information at the speed of you.
Every year more than 500 million travelers are allowed into the United States. Over 11 million trucks and 2 million rail cars are admitted by land, and at sea an estimated 7,500 ships pass through the U.S. ports. Following the September 11 attacks and the threat of terrorist threat, securing our borders has become more important than ever before. The Department of Homeland security has recently been formed to address these concerns and to find an appropriate solution.

Random checks simply don’t match the security measures of today. Since customs cannot hold the ship in the dock for a week, or however long it would take to manually check the manifest, they are forced to perform random checks. So far there have been no adequate solutions, until Image-X began applying XForms. These are interactive forms that can be filled and submitted from any place and at any time drastically simplified the dilemma while reducing security issues.

Related Links Product Demo Contact Sales
Document ManagementEDAR Read the Whitepaper

The shipper records the data electronically through XML integration.
Software checks the validity of the packages and red flags un-matching dimensions (i.e. 1000 lbs of apples in a 3” by 3” box)
Customs receives manifests before the ship leaves the departing harbor
XML data is automatically transferred into customs data base allowing for plenty of time to check the validity of the packages Information is then electronically forwarded to the Homeland Security Department